What is periodontal disease?
Periodontal disease is a disease that affects the gums and the supporting structure of the teeth. It is known as "pyorrhea". The bacteria present in the plaque cause periodontal disease. This plate, if not removed, hardens and becomes a hard and porous substance called calculus. (also known as tartar). The toxins, which are produced by the bacteria in the plaque, irritate the gums. These toxins cause the gums to detach from the teeth and to form periodontal pockets, which are filled with more toxins and bacteria.
As the disease progresses, the bone, gum, and periodontal ligament that sustains it is lost. to the tooth. All this causes the so-called black spaces to appear and causes the teeth to see each other longer times. From that moment the tooth loses "hold" as it were and begins to have mobility. Later, and over time, the tooth falls or you have to remove it since it makes the bite impossible and it becomes very hard to eat.
How can we know that we have gum disease, tell us what signs or symptoms can we feel?
- Gums soft, inflamed or reddish.
- Receding gums or teeth that look longer than normal.
- Bleeding from brushing or flossing.
- Gums that come off the teeth Teeth loose or separated
- Pus between the gum and the tooth
- Continuous bad breath
- Change in the way the teeth fit into the bite
- A poor oral hygiene
- Smoking is another of the most significant risk factors related to the development of gum disease. In addition, smoking can decrease the effect of some treatments.
- The genetic. There is a hereditary component that makes some people more likely than others to have a severe case of gum disease.
- Crooked teeth that are difficult to keep clean.
- Pregnancy and hormonal changes in women.
- Diabetes People with diabetes have an increased risk of developing infections, including gum disease
There are different states of periodontal disease. It begins with a gingivitis that is the stadium prior to periodontal disease. Causes gums to become red, swollen and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage.
Gingivitis is reversible if it is treated professionally and with good oral care at home. If the Gingivitis is not treated, can progress to a light periodontitis. In this stage the disease periodontal begins to destroy the bone and tissue that support the teeth. If we continue without controlling it happens to be moderate or advanced periodontitis. This is the most advanced form of the disease in where extensive bone and tissue loss occurs and often leads to total loss of teeth.
What treatment is recommended for periodontal disease?
The basic treatment consists of a deep cleaning of the tartar that accumulates on top and below the gum line. To do this, a curettage or scraping and smoothing of the roots, to eliminate the tartar where the germs accumulate.
It is also common to use mouthwashes with an antimicrobial agent, such as chlorhexidine, for the realization of mouth rinses.
In some cases, the depth of the periodontal pockets and an advanced state of the Illness advised to resort to periodontal surgery.
In cases where surgery is performed, it may be advisable to perform a bone or tissue graft, to replace the one that has been lost as a result of periodontal disease.
From there, the most important thing is to make a maintenance and control in subsequent visits for life to the dentist. These control treatments are performed every 3-6 months depending on each patient.